Guinea-Bissau/Cape Verde / 1969
Amílcar Cabral (pictured) led the successful guerrilla movement to gain independence from Portuguese rule in Guinea and Cape Verde. The Portuguese colonists, much like the Belgians, were particularly heinous. (When the Portuguese settlers fled newly independent Mozambique, they made it a point to destroy as many buildings, structures, livestock and machines as possible before they left). Of course, like many African freedom fighters—like Patrice Lumumba [Congo], Steve Biko [South Africa], Felix Moumie [Cameroon], Sylvanus Olympio [Togo], Mehdi Ben Barka [Morocco], and Eduardo Mondlane [Mozambique]—Cabral was assassinated.